Techniques for Harnessing Energy What is Geothermal Energy?

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Techniques for Harnessing Energy What is Geothermal Energy?

Geothermal is derived from Geothermal is the Greek word geo (meaning earth) and (meaning the word heat). Convective circulation plays an important part in bringing heat to the surface from the Earth’s hot interior.

Our Earth’s crust is a product of millions active volcanoes, massive amounts of magma, and plenty of cooling below the surface. The constant and extensive volcanism has created a wealth of natural resources around the globe.

Geothermal Power plants energy can be extracted from groundwater that is heated by massive, hot magma bodies. Get Energy from Brantley 1994 Volcanoes located in the United States. USGS General Interest Publication.

The deep circulation of groundwater in fracture zones can help reduce heat to lower levels. This heat can be gathered over a large area , and then concentrated in close to the storage tanks on the surface, or it can be discharged in hot springs. These reservoirs may hold hot water or a stream.

The hot water in these reservoirs or steam can be pumped directly into the surface. This low-energy waste water is usually reinjected into the storage tank , or utilized for heating purposes. This technology can be used to produce electricity as well as heat for home and industrial uses.

The reliability, economy, sustainability, and the renewable energy of geothermal power have been proved (World Bank Group, 2004).

There are two primary kinds of minerals: (1) high temperature resources and (2) moderate/low temperature resources. High temperature geothermal resources are those that have temperatures of 220 degrees Celsius or higher, are primarily found in volcanic areas and island chains.

All continents have moderate-low temperature resources. High temperatures are used mostly for power production, while the majority of the resources with low temperatures are used to heat direct or for aquaculture and agriculture.

What is the process behind Harnessing Geothermal Energy?

There are currently three types of geothermal power stations in use.

Steam plants that directly use geothermal steam. The steam power plant that use dry steam use extreme high temperatures of steam (>455 degrees Fahrenheit, or >235 temperatures Celsius) and only a small amount of reservoir water. The steam is pumped directly through a pipe , and is sent to a turbine which spins a generator in order to generate electricity. This is the oldest type of geothermal power station. It was first utilized by 1904 Lardarello, Italy. Geysers are found in North California are one example of dry steam production (Green Jobs 2002).

Flash Steam Plants use high pressure hot water to produce steam even when tension is less. Flash steam power plants make use of hot water from the geothermal reservoir at a temperature of >360degF or more than 182 degrees Celsius. The reservoir’s pressure is released when the water is pumped into a generator.

A sudden decrease in pressure causes water to evaporate to steam. This steam spins a turbine which generates electricity. Steam power plant flash and dry produce very little carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, as well as nitric oxide. But, this is fifty times less than traditional fossil fuel power plants.

Binary Cycle Plants use water at moderate temperatures (225 to 360deg For 107 to 182degC) from the geothermal reserve. Geothermal fluids that are hot can be heated through going through the other side of the heat exchanger.

For electricity generation, the working fluid is typically an organic compound with a low boiling point like Isobutane as well as Isopentane. Then, it is vaporized and then pumped through turbines.

The Kalina Cycle also uses an ammonia-water fluid to work as a fluid. As per Green Jobs 2002, the Kalina Cycle system increases geothermal plant efficiency and reduces construction costs. This, according to the manufacturers.

The station for geothermal energy as shown on the right is located in the Casa Diablo geothermal field. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Geothermal Energy: Applications

  1. Space/District Heating - Schemes that use geothermal heat to supply more than the 80% of Reykjavik’s heating needs are in use in many other towns in the USA, Poland, and Hungary. A plan to make use of hot water from{ failed|| a failed} oil wells in Poland to replace district heating based on coal is supported through the World Bank (World Bank Group 2004).
  2. Aquaculture and Agriculture - Plants, soils, and fish ponds with geothermal activity may increase the growth of fish and plants in both moderate temperatures and more cold climates. One successful example could be the Oserian farm in Kenya (World Flowers 2005).
  3. Power Generation Geothermal power generation has a capability of over 8000 milliwatts and is a well-established technology. It is especially popular in nations or islands that rely heavily on imported fossil fuels (World Bank Group 2004,).
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Geothermal Energy Costs

The price of geothermal power generated is 4.5-7 cents/hour. Although this is similar to certain fossil fuel facilities, but it is important to remember that geothermal electricity generation is a dramatic reduction in the amount of pollution.

The scope of the project along with its quality, the cost of financing, as well as ownership will all affect the cost of delivery.

Geothermal power plants require a significant amount of capital, but have relatively low variable costs and low fuel costs.

The financing structure is usually designed so that the capital expenses of the project are to be paid back in 15 years. It provides power at 5-10C/kWh.

The cost of running the facility for the next 15-30 years will be paid for by maintenance and operations.

Geothermal Energy can also bring other advantages

  1. Air pollution can be reduced Geothermal fields currently emit approximately one-sixth of the amount of carbon dioxide as an electricity-generating gas power station, and they emit no nitrogen (NOx) or sulfur (SOx).

The new state-of-the art integrated cycle plants produce virtually no air pollutants. Every 1,000 MW of geothermal energy will offset approximately 1.9 million pounds of harmful and harmful air pollution in Western skies.

It will also offset about 8 billion pounds of climate-changing CO2 emissions per year from gas power plants that are fired and a lot more from the coal-fired power plants.

  1. Energy sources that are renewable: all kinds of geothermal heat are renewable as long as the heat exchangers that are extracted from the earth do not more than the heat that is absorbed into the thermo reservoir. When it’s depleted completely, a geothermal reservoir used for electricity generation can be a long time to replenish.

Recovering the reservoir of a district heating system could take anywhere between 100 and 200 years. Recovery of a geothermal heat pump reservoir could take up to 30 years.

  1. Reduce dependence on electricity imported: Geothermal energy is produced locally, which helps reduce trade deficits. The trade deficit can be reduced to preserve wealth within the country and promote more healthy economies. If imported oil were substituted by domestic resources, almost half from the total U.S. trade deficit could be removed (Green Jobs 2004,).

Geothermal energy is a well-established wave energy source that has been in use for more than 100 years. But, it’s only recently that we are able to see it has geothermal energy potential to complement and replace the existing renewable energy resources.

The United States has the majority of geothermal energy resources in the west, which includes [region] and. Geothermal energy is effective cheap, clean, and safe but its limited use is its biggest weakness. Geothermal energy represents only one-third of solar power dispersed over the Earth’s surface when compared with other options such as solar. It has potential for improvement.

Although geothermal energy units can be expanded, their methods and technology have remained unchanged. We should also consider the appropriateness of alternative energy sources as we look for them.

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Five methods to tap into the{ original|| first} source of renewable energy - human power

Wind-up phone charger

Mobile phone users who have a habit of staying connected should not wander too far from their power source or be afraid of their battery draining. The “Reactor” iPhone case is equipped with an ultra-thin generator. It allows you to charge your battery manually using the knob connected to its back. While this method of energy generation might not be revolutionary, it sheds light on the possibility that human-power can be utilized to supply emergency power and is readily available when needed.

Gravity-powered light

Making a product that is powered by humans can be difficult because it requires less work to generate energy. Gravity Light solves this problem by harnessing the power of gravity. To lift the sandbag weight all it takes is one shot of power. The weight gradually drops to rotate a spur gear system that power the LED light for twenty minutes.

Human harvesting

Parasitic harvesting is the process of generating wind power from ordinary activities like walking. The nPowerPEG is a hand-held tube-shaped device that is able to be attached onto your backpack or belt. It generates electricity through movement using a magnet, spring, or inductive coil. While it’s not sufficient power for powerful electronics like tablets and laptops The concept is an impressive energy efficiency and battery technology.

Flywheel kitchen appliances

Modern technology powered by humans does not solely rely on the production of electricity. Christoph Thetard’s flywheel drive RB2B is a power source for the kitchen with a variety of appliances. The flywheel rotates at 10,000 RPM with a geared transmission with mechanical power of 350 W. The power of the wave can be used to power several attachments such as cutting disks, knives and whisk. While it’s unclear how practical this device is however, the creator deserves praise for coming up with a design that challenges conventional notions that all devices that are powered by humans must be mobile and powered by batteries.


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